千禧彩票网設的連結:建構繁榮

為維持亞洲的成長動能,發展中的亞洲到2030年以前需要投資2.4兆美元在基礎建設上1。都市化的擴大、人口結構的變遷以及財富的增加是亞洲基礎建設發展的重要因素。雖然每個國家的需求不同,但都可以透過亞洲區域基礎建設的整合網絡獲得豐富的效益。

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研究指出基礎建設較為完善的國家通常擁有較高的經濟成長、較好的工作機會和生活條件。基礎建設的不足就像經濟成長的瓶頸,為社會增加了交易成本、減少了進入市場的機會,也因此降低了貿易量。

在1997年亞洲金融風暴後,亞洲國家投注了相當大的心力在基礎建設上,希望能透過基礎建設的發展自金融風暴的衝擊中更快復甦。事實上,基礎建設是否有效且可靠奠基了亞洲與世界進行貿易的競爭力。

亞洲基礎建設目前的狀況

亞洲基礎建設品質參差不一。在2018年全球競爭力報告2 中清楚的強調了這個分歧:大部分的基礎建設仍然低於平均,然而卻有少數達到了世界級標準。

雖然過去二十年已有了很大的進展,新興亞洲比其他發展中區域建造了更多跨部門的基礎建設。例如:在2001年到2010年間,新興亞洲的路網建造速度高於其他OECD經濟體。儘管略低於其他發展中國家,但人均發電量也在同期快速的成長3

同時亞洲也投資高科技基礎建設,瀚亞中國投資長齊皓指出,中國在5G、高速鐵路、城市軌道交通、大數據中心、電動汽車充電站和人工智慧等建設,將會促進其他產業的成長、帶來外溢效果。

然而,企業在基礎建設參與率低是持續發展的阻礙。在亞洲,政府貸資佔基礎設施支出高達九成,新興市場為七成,全球為四成。這樣的財政支出結構難以支撐亞洲基礎建設支出快速成長4,不僅是公部門,私部門也需要承擔基礎建設發展的需求。

提升企業參與融資的其中一個方法就是區域整合,這讓鄰近國家能以合作達成互利。區域整合今已成為許多全球與區域機構有效發展的策略。然而,區域基礎建設仍存在許多風險與不確定性,使得許多企業投資者卻步。最終,雖然這些計畫由公私部門合作,但仍然需要相當程度的政府保證。

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現有的區域基礎建設

由於多方機構的協助,亞洲推進了一些次區域基礎設施計劃。1992年亞洲交通建設的發展是一項關鍵的成就,它由三大支柱所構成:亞洲高速鐵路、跨洲鐵路與港口。實體的整合聯結對於區域內供應鏈的互補性相當重要。

亞洲有相當多的基礎建設目的在於創造跨經濟的走廊。在東協,有四個重要的跨境基礎建設:東協電網,跨東協天然氣管道,東協公路網和新加坡至昆明鐵路線。由於昆明構建了一個連接東南亞和南亞的先進網絡,因此被稱為交通中點和通訊樞紐。

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而中國在2013年發表一帶一路,期望能透過陸地與海洋來連結65個國家間的跨區域貿易,一帶一路上的國家佔據了世界六成的人口、三成的GDP5。至今,一條航道與三條路上交通走廊已在運行,其它的也正在興建中。

千禧彩票网路重要?

一帶一路對區域具有正面的影響。若一帶一路建築完成,將會減少區域往來的時間約12%,增加貿易量2.7%到9.7%,增加總體收入3.4%,並且使760萬人脫離赤貧6

同樣的,泛亞可再生能源網將使日本,韓國,中國和俄羅斯的電網透過蒙古國龐大的太陽能和風能資源連接起來。鼓勵國家連結彼此的電網,區域未開發的可再生能源容積將吸引投資進駐、增進自給與輸出剩餘電力。這樣的建設也有助於處理氣候變遷和減少亞洲對石油的依賴。

跨境基礎建設也會增進旅遊業的發展,例如機場與飛機航道數目的擴增。研究估計不管是對於離境國或入進國,航道數目增長10%將會增加國際遊客7.4%7

漫漫長路

亞洲目前的基礎建設需求相當可觀:超過4億亞洲人生活缺乏電力、超過3億人沒有安全的飲用水、超過15億人沒有基礎的衛生設備8。此外,亞洲許多地區在經濟和地理上仍處於孤立狀態,因此擁有極大的開發潛力。

基礎建設在世界最大的自由貿易協定─區域全面經濟夥伴協定(RCEP)中也扮演關鍵的角色。RCEP若在未來能順利簽署,將會由東協、中國、日本、南韓、澳洲、紐西蘭和印度所構成。這個自由貿易協定不僅僅連結了世界半數的人口和四分之一的出口9,也促進了投資、幫助新興亞洲發展的更快速。

長遠來看,亞洲的規模與密度所帶來的好處將可透過商品、服務、資訊和人員的自由移動顯現出來。亞洲的政策制定者應該要將建立橫跨亞洲的道路、鐵路、橋梁、電廠和網管視作第一要務。

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